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Life Changing Posts

Important concepts to master.  In the past couple of years, let’s see, we’ve talked about:

Milk and Lactose IntoleranceHow to prevent and reverse heart diseaseSodium and Salt.

How to properly set a table and  Is diet soda good or bad.

I introduced you to Matcha tea and tea in general.

I explained that there are things that you shouldn’t put in the freezer  and what

to stock your pantry with as well as your freezer.

I showed you my favorite carved pumpkins, my favorite blogs to read

and we talked about Grits.

We learned how to de-bone a whole chicken, how to can things, how to blanch and how to cook rice.

We also learned how to make pie dough from scratch and our own scratch pasta.  Then we studied

how to roast vegetables and how to make Kimchi.  We learned about the 5 basic sauces and how to modify them.

We even learned harder looking dishes like Beef Wellington and Sushi.

We studied nutrition and diets and why vegan isn’t a bad idea.  We now know that there are at least 12 foods that are bad for the

planet.

More Important concepts to master

You wanted to learn about fiber and calories as well as the superfoods to eat.   But most of all you wanted to know about

what is in your food and mistakes we make that make us fatter.  I showed you where I get my coupons and how the Kroger Store is laid out.

I warned you about chemicals and pesticides in our food and told you which food is better to be bought organically raised.

 

I’ve shared over 55 of the best recipes I could find.  Now I need to know what else you’d like to learn about.  Please let me know. – Jughandle

 

Sodium – Salt

How Much

How much salt should be in our daily diet?

If you are like me, we love salt.  It makes everything taste better, but we’ve been told not to eat too much of the stuff – right?

The AHA – American Heart Association says that we shouldn’t have more than 2300 mg of sodium per day which is equal to one teaspoon of salt.

What happens if we don’t?

They also say that excess sodium in our diets may harm our kidneys (stones) and promote high blood pressure which leads to other nasty things.  Excess sodium is also linked to stomach cancer.

Sources of Sodium

The most common source of sodium in our diet is table salt which is sodium chloride which contains 40% sodium.  Some of the minor sources are baking soda which is sodium bicarbonate and MSG which is monosodium glutamate.  A tablespoon of baking soda contains roughly 1 gram of sodium.  Even lesser sources are sodium nitrate (saltpeter) which is a preservative in food and sodium ascorbate which is used as an antioxidant and is added to antacids and such.

All processed foods and canned foods have added salt unless they specifically state otherwise.

Conclusion

This ones pretty simple.  I’m not going to stop using salt.  I’m going to only add salt while I’m cooking and only at the end of the cooking process.  I’ll avoid the salt cellar and drink my bloodies and Salty dogs with just a little salt on the rim.  But, I don’t yet have a problem (excluding kidney stones) and I’ve been a dietary Flexi-vegan-tarian * for for over a month now.

*Note:  I eat a vegan diet with eggs and cheese occasionally

So like everything else we preach here on the Fat Farm, avoid processed and canned foods when possible and eat as much fresh vegetables and fruits as you can to live happily ever after – jughandle


 

Pantry 101-General Goods & Condiments 27-33

General goods & Condiments
1. rice
2. dried pasta in different shapes
3. dried onion soup mix
4. tomato paste
5. tomato sauce
6. canned tomatoes
7. peanut butter
8. jelly
9. canned tuna
10. raisins
11. chocolate syrup
12. cereals
13. chicken or beef stock
14. canned soups
15. canned beans
16. olives
17. canned pears
18. canned peaches
19. applesauce
20. vegetable oil
21. olive oil
22. red wine vinegar
23. white wine vinegar
24. vegetable shortening
25. nonstick cooking spray
26. mayonnaise
27. ketchup
28. mustard
29. salad dressings
30. soy sauce
31. hot pepper sauce
32. Worcestershire sauce
33. barbecue sauce
34. salsa
35. honey
36. maple syrup
37. white wine for cooking
38. red wine for cooking
39. Mango Chutney

27) ketchup

Ketchup (also spelled catsup or catchup), also known as tomato ketchup, tomato sauce, red sauce, Tommy sauce, Tommy K, or dead horse, is a condiment, usually made from tomatoes. The ingredients in a typical modern ketchup are tomato concentrate, spirit vinegar, corn syrup or other sugar, salt, spice and herb extracts (including celery), spice and garlic powder. Allspice, cloves, cinnamon, onion, and other vegetables may be included.
Ketchup started as a general term for sauce, typically made of mushrooms or fish brine with herbs and spices. Some popular early main ingredients included blueberry, anchovy, oyster, lobster, walnut, kidney bean, cucumber, cranberry, lemon, celery and grape.
Ketchup is often used with chips (French fries), hamburgers, sandwiches and grilled or fried meat. Ketchup is also used as a base for various sauces.

Unfortuately most of today’s Ketchup, Catsup, has High Fructose Corn syrup in it. We have found that Heinz now has an “Organic” version that is HFC free. Make you own and you can control the contents. Ella Ween Myer’s is very good.

28) mustard
Wikipedia says it best:

The Romans probably developed the prepared mustards we know today. They mixed unfermented grape juice, known as “must,” with ground mustard seeds (called sinapis) to make “burning must”, mustum ardens—hence “must ard”.

Varieties
Mustard, yellow
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 70 kcal 280 kJ
Carbohydrates 8 g
– Sugars 3 g
– Dietary fiber 3 g
Fat 3 g
Protein 4 g
Sodium 1120 mg 75%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

There are many varieties of mustard which come in a wide range of strengths and flavors. The basic taste and “heat” of the mustard is largely determined by seed type, preparation and ingredients.[1][3] Black seeded mustard is generally regarded as the hottest type. Preparation also plays a key role in the final outcome of the mustard. Mustard, in its powdered form, lacks any potency and needs to be fixed; it is the production of allyl isothiocyanate from the reaction of myrosinase and sinigrin during soaking that causes gustatory heat to emerge. One of the factors that determines the strength of a prepared mustard is the temperature of the water, vinegar, or other liquid mixed with the ground seeds: hotter liquids are more hostile to the strength-producing compounds. Thus, hot mustard is made with cold water, while using hot water results in milder mustard (other factors remaining the same).
The pungency of mustard is always reduced by heating, not just at the time of preparation; if added to a dish during cooking much of the effect of the mustard is lost.
Locations renowned for their mustard include Dijon (medium strength) and Meaux in France; Norwich (very hot) and Tewkesbury, famed for its variety, in the United Kingdom; and Düsseldorf (hot) and Bavaria in Germany. There are variations in the subsidiary spices and in the preparation of the mustard seeds. The husks may be ground with the seeds, or winnowed away after the initial crushing; “whole-grain mustard” retains some unground or partially ground mustard seeds. Bavarian “sweet mustard” contains very little acid, substituting copious amounts of sugar for preservation. Sometimes prepared mustard is simmered to moderate its bite, sometimes it is aged. Irish mustard is a wholegrain type blended with whiskey and/or honey.
Dijon mustard

Dijon mustard is not covered by a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or a Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) under the auspices of the European Union; thus, while there are major mustard plants in Dijon and suburbs, most Dijon mustard is manufactured outside of Dijon.

Dijon mustard originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic “green” juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe.

Mustards from Dijon today generally contain both white wine and burgundy wine; most mustards marketed as Dijon style contain one or both of these wines.
Yellow mustard

A bottle of yellow mustard.

Yellow mustard is the most commonly used mustard in the United States and Canada, where it is sometimes referred to simply as “mustard”; in the rest of the world, it is often called American mustard. This is a very mild mustard colored bright yellow by the inclusion of turmeric. It was introduced in 1904 by George T. French as “cream salad mustard”. This mustard is closely associated with hot dogs, deli sandwiches, and hamburgers. Along with its use on various sandwiches, yellow mustard is a key ingredient in many potato salads, barbecue sauces, and salad dressings. Yellow mustard is often rubbed on barbecue meat prior to applying a dry rub, to form a crust, called bark, on the meat.
Wholegrain mustard

In wholegrain mustard, the seeds are not ground, but mixed whole with other ingredients. Different flavors and strengths can be achieved by using different blends of mustard seed species. Some variations have additives such as sun-dried tomato mustard and chili mustard.
Honey mustard

This honey mustard has added peppers and spices.

Honey mustard, as the name suggests, is a blend of mustard and honey, usually 1:1. It is most often used as a topping for sandwiches and as a dip for chicken strips, french fries, onion rings, and other finger foods. It can also be used combined with vinegar and/or olive oil to make a salad dressing. The most basic honey mustard is a mixture of equal amounts of honey and mustard; however, most varieties include other ingredients to modify the flavor and texture. Combinations of English mustard with honey or demerara sugar are popularly used in British cuisine to coat grilled lamb cutlets or pork chops. Peppers and spices are sometimes added to give honey mustard a distinct hot and spicy taste.
English and French mustards
The two most common varieties of mustard in Europe are English and French mustard. The English variety is typically bright yellow in appearance, but much hotter than American mustard, akin to a Wasabi like sensation and is used sparingly. In the UK, the brand Colman’s is almost synonymous with mustard itself. The French variety is typically darker in color and contains more vinegar, giving a milder taste.
Irish mustard

Irish mustard is a blend of wholegrain mustard with honey and/or Irish whiskey.
Chinese mustard

Chinese mustard is a commonly served condiment in Chinese cuisine, and in Chinese American cuisine it is available (along with soy sauce and duck sauce) in small clear plastic packages when ordering Chinese take-out food. A similar form of mustard is also served in Korean cuisine, particularly with the buckwheat noodle dish called naengmyeon. In Japanese cuisine, a similar type of mustard is called karashi, and is served with oden, natto and other dishes. Chinese mustard is basically mustard powder and water. It is very strong compared to other types of mustard. In Bangladeshi cuisine, a similar type of mustard is used, although it is mostly consumed in Chittagong province.
Horseradish mustard

Horseradish mustard contains horseradish as well as mustard. The horseradish adds a sour flavour plus additional heat. Horseradish mustard is generally available as either mild or hotter than English mustard.
Culinary uses

Mustard is often used at the table as a condiment on meat. It is also used as an ingredient in mayonnaise, vinaigrette, marinades and barbecue sauce. It can also be used as a base for salad dressing when combined with vinegar and/or olive oil. Mustard is a popular accompaniment to hot dogs, pretzels, and Bratwurst.

Dry mustard, typically sold in tins, is used in cooking and can be mixed with water to become prepared mustard.

Prepared mustard is generally sold at retail in glass jars or plastic bottles although in Europe it is often marketed in metal, squeezable tubes. Some types of prepared mustard stored for a long time may separate, causing mustard water, which can be corrected by stirring or shaking. If stored for a long time unrefrigerated mustard acquires a bitter taste. Refrigeration greatly prolongs shelf life.

29) salad dressings
Salad dressings are anything that you dress a salad with. You can buy store bought anything, but watch out for the ingredients and calories. We usually make our own. Darlene likes a nice French or Thousand Island, I usually like an Italian or Oil & Vinegar. Here are a couple of good dressing recipes that are better than store bought:

French:
Ingredients

1 oil, we use olive or corn oil
1 cup ketchup
1/2 cup sugar
1/4 cup white vinegar
1/4 cup water
1 teaspoon garlic salt
1 teaspoon black pepper
1/4 teaspoon salt

Directions

Put all ingredients in blender or food processor; blend until well mixed. You can vary the amount of each ingredient or add some different ones to taste.

Thousand Island

Ingredients

2 tablespoons chopped onions
1 garlic clove (omit for a milder flavor)
1 1/2 cups mayonnaise
1/4 cup ketchup
2 teaspoons chili sauce
1 tablespoon sweet pickles chopped
2 tablespoons lemon juice or white vinegar
3-4 teaspoons sugar to taste
1/4-1/2 teaspoon salt to taste
1/2 teaspoon black pepper to taste

30) soy sauce
Soy sauce is a staple condiment and ingredient throughout all of Asia. Produced for thousands of years, soy sauce is a salty, brown liquid made from fermented soy beans mixed with some type of roasted grain (wheat, barley, or rice are common), injected with a special yeast mold, and liberally flavored with salt. After being left to age for several months, the mixture is strained and bottled. The sauce’s consistency can range from very thin to very thick. Flavors, too, vary by type and have very subtle differences. Light soy sauce from Japan has a thinner consistency and a saltier flavor than the darker varieties. It is preferred when a darker sauce will ruin the appearance of a dish, or when a lighter flavor is sought, especially when serving seafood. Dark soy sauce is used throughout Asia and is a bit richer and thicker than the lighter varieties. It tends to have a chocolate brown color, and a pungent, rather than overly salty, flavor. Mushroom soy sauce is a dark soy sauce from China which adds straw mushroom essence to the sauce’s brew. It has a deep, rich flavor and can be used in place of other types of soy sauce in most recipes. It is especially nice as a table condiment where its unusual flavor can come through. Tamari is a deeply colored Japanese soy sauce which has a rich texture and intense flavor. It can be used anywhere regular soy sauce is called for, and is especially good to use as a table condiment and dipping sauce. Wheat-free varieties of soy sauce are available in some markets. Remember soy sauce is very salty, so adjust you salt accordingly.

31) hot pepper sauce
OMG – where do we start? I think of hot pepper sauce or just pepper sauce as the bottles of peppers with vinegar in them that you use on greens. This should include hot sauce too, which, to me are the red and brown sauces. This is a book in itself so I will just give my opinion. I have no fewer than 50 pepper sauces and hot sauces in my fridge or pantry and any given time. But except for special occasions I use probably three or 4. Tobassco in all forms is great. I use the original on most drinks or dishes that call for heat. If I want smoke, I use the chipolte type. If I want a milder heat but need the flavor I always go for either Crystal, or Louisiana Hot sauce.

32) Worcestershire sauce
This could be my favorite sauce. Lea & Perrins is the original sauce and it is still the best. Unfortuately it is made with HFCS so I have been looking for alternatives. French’s makes a no HFCS sauce with sugar instead, but for some reason it isn’t as good. I even made my own. It was ok, but something was missing. I noticed on the ingredients of the Lea & Perrins that the only thing I didn’t use in mine was tamarind. Not really knowing what tamarind was I did a little research and bingo, I found some tamarind bean pods at Harry’s. They are hard on the outside and easy to crack. Inside they are really sticky and paste like. That was the flavor I was missing. My Worcestershire is now almost as good but it costs $10 a bottle.

33) barbecue sauce
Here again is a topic for great debate. The best sauce I personally have ever put in my mouth is Brent Naugher’s home made sauce. It is a perfect blend of hot and spice and tomato. It tastes sweet sometimes and salty others, it is just thick enough and I get some every Christmas. I’m sorry for you that don’t. The best store bought I’ve had is William’s Brothers. You can get it at Sam’s in large bottles or Kroger in small. It is close, but no cigar, to Brent’s. Try making your own, its fun and your tastes are different than anyone elses.

Bye,

Jughandle

 

Pantry 101-Baking and Spices 6-12

Yesterday we did Baking and Spices (dry goods) 1-5. I left out two very important items from the list and I’m going to insert them to the #6 & 7 slot.

6) Corn flour – from http://www.recipetips.com/glossary-term/t–38299/corn-flour.asp

Is a type of flour milled from dried kernels of yellow corn. It is similar to cornmeal except that it is ground to a finer consistency than cornmeal. It is used to make cornbread, muffins, pancakes, polenta, and tortillas. Corn flour is very useful for gluten-free quick breads. Because corn flour contains no gluten, it must be blended with wheat flour when preparing yeasted breads.

There are several other popular varieties of corn flour available and some may be more regionally popular than others. Harinilla is a variety of corn flour made from blue corn. It is often used for a number of Mexican dishes including tortillas, tamales, and dumplings. The blue corn is treated with a lime solution, which expands the kernel, allowing it to be removed from the hull. If harinilla is not available, blue cornmeal can be substituted, but it should be milled in a food processor to produce a flourlike consistency. Harinilla is also known as “blue corn flour” and when it is used for preparing tortillas, it is called “Harina Azul”.

Masa harina is corn flour that is ground from dried hominy. White or yellow corn is used for making hominy, which is also known as “posole” or “pozole”. The corn is boiled in a solution containing powdered lime and is then washed, dried, and ground to form the masa harina. It is used in preparing corn tamales and tortillas. Blue corn is used to make harinilla and is not used for masa harina.

Cornstarch is obtained from the white heart of the corn kernel. Cornstarch is a tasteless, very fine powder that is very useful as a thickener, having double the thickening properties of regular flour. It is widely used for thickening sauces, gravies, and puddings. It is best to stir it into water first before it is added to other foods, so that it can be more easily incorporated without creating lumps. In England, cornstarch is referred to as corn flour or cornflour, while in the United States corn flour refers to whole corn kernels that have been finely ground.

7) Corn Meal

A flour-like substance that has larger granules than regular flour and is produced from grinding dried kernels of yellow or blue corn. Yellow or blue cornmeal can also be ground to a finer consistency and sold as gluten free flour that is used to make cornbread, muffins, pancakes, polenta, and tortillas. Cornmeal is very useful for gluten-free quick breads. Baked goods have a course, gritty texture with a granular crumb and a flavor of sweet corn. Freshly ground cornmeal is best, especially if it is stoneground, because it has more flavor than cornmeal ground using other methods. Because cornmeal contains no gluten, it must be blended with wheat flour in order to form a bread loaf.

 

Corn Meal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corn Meal when added to a fried food dredge gives a great crunch to the food.

8) Salt

Believe it or not I could go on for a long time about salt. Salt is very important to our bodies and very important to cooking. I would never recommend buying any regular “table salt” ever! Morton’s is the most common table salt. It is fine grained so you tend to use more. It has iodine and aluminum added to it to make it flow and not clumb. Don’t by it for any reason. Instead buy Kosher or Sea salt. You can now find kosher salt in almost every store in the spice department. Pour some into a nice glass open bowl and pinch or spoon from it when you need salt. It has large crystals and a stronger salt taste so you don’t need to use as much. For specialty occasions I use other salts, like black seas salt, pink sea salt, and the ultimate salt in my opinion is Fleur de sel.
“Fleur de sel (“Flower of salt” in French) is a hand-harvested sea salt collected by workers who scrape only the top layer of salt before it sinks to the bottom of large salt pans. Traditional French fleur de sel is collected off the coast of Brittany (most notably in the town of Guérande – Fleur de Sel de Guérande, hand harvested from salt marsh water being the most revered), Noirmoutier, and also Camargue, and is slightly grey due to the sandy minerals collected in the process of harvesting the salt from the pans. Fleur de sel is one of most expensive salts in the world and is usually sold in jars as it is slightly damp.

A great source of all forms of salt that Jughandle highly recommends is www.salttraders.com

Also known in Portuguese as “flor de sal”, the hand-harvested variant from the Algarve region of Portugal is becoming known, as it is of similar quality to the French fleur de sel.[citation needed] In addition, it has the advantage of being pure white and usually sells for half the price of the French fleur de sel.
Fleur de sel is best used similarly to fresh herbs, sprinkling it onto food just before serving” – from Wikipedia

9) Pepper – from http://www.recipezaar.com/library/getentry.zsp?id=337

The world’s most popular spice, a berry grown in grapelike clusters on the pepper plant (a climbing vine native to India and Indonesia. The berry is processed to produce three basic types: black, white, and green. Black is the most common; when picken the berry is not quite ripe, then dried until it shrivels and the skin turns dark brown to black. Black is the strongest (slightly hot with a hint of sweetness) flavor of the three. Tellicherry and Lampong are among the best black peppercorns. White peppercorn, less pungent, has been allowed to ripen, then the skin is removed and the berry dried. White peppercorns are smaller, have a smoother skin and a light-tan color with a milder flavor. The green peppercon is the soft, underripe berry that is usually preserved in brine. It has a fresh flavor that is less pungent than the berry in its other forms.

Ethnicity: India, Indonesia Ingredient

Season: available year-round

How to select: Black and white are available whole, cracked, and ground. Green peppercorns are packed in brine and are available in jars and cans.

How to store: Whole: store in a cool, dark place for about a year. Ground will keep its flavor for about four months. Green peppercorns packed in brine should be refrigerated once opened and will keep for 1 month; packed in water will keep for a week.

How to prepare: Whole peppercorns freshly ground with a pepper mill deliver more flavor than preground.

Matches well with: cheese, eggs, fish, game, lamb, pork, poultry, salad, sausages, soup, steaks, strawberries, tomatoes, veal

You should stock at least both black and white pepper, and you really only need whole corns. Invest in grinder, pepper is always better freshly ground.

10) Sugar
Here we are just talking about white plain sugar. You should have a 5 lb bag around at all times. When you store your flours and sugars it is always good to put them in an airtight container like Tupperware or Rubbermaid. They will keep a long time.

11) Confectioner’s sugar
Sure, this is still sugar but in a completely different form. Known as powdered sugar, 10x sugar, icing sugar, it is all the same except confectioner’s sugar has corn starch added. It is used to make icing, to add as a topping on pancakes, deserts, etc. You really only need a small bag or box unless you are making butter cream icing or fondant. In a pinch you can make powdered sugar by grinding in a blender 1 cup of granulated sugar and 1 tablespoon of corn starch.

12) Brown sugar
Here we go on a very hot topic. I’m going to give you all the info I have on the subject and also tell you that I buy light brown sugar or raw and organic. That way I avoid the chemicals.

Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content or produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar.

Brown sugar contains from 3.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.5% molasses (dark brown sugar). The product is naturally moist from the hygroscopic nature of the molasses and is often labelled as “soft.” The product may undergo processing to give a product that flows better for industrial handling. The addition of dyes and/or other chemicals may be permitted in some areas or for industrial products.  (Jughandle says always read the label)

Particle size is variable but generally less than granulated white sugar. Products for industrial use (e.g. the industrial production of cakes) may be based on caster sugar which has crystals of approximately 0.35 mm.

Manufacturing Process

Many brown sugar producers produce brown sugar by adding cane molasses to completely refined white sugar crystals in order to more carefully control the ratio of molasses to sugar crystals and to reduce manufacturing costs. This also allows the production of brown sugars to be based predominantly on beet sugar. Brown sugar prepared in this manner is often much coarser than its unrefined equivalent and its molasses may be easily separated from the crystals by simple washing to reveal the underlying white sugar crystals; with unrefined brown there is inclusion of molasses within the crystal which will appear off-white if washed. This is mainly done for inventory control and convenience.

The molasses usually used is that obtained from sugar cane, because the flavor is generally preferred over beet sugar molasses. Although in some areas, especially in the Netherlands, sugar beet molasses is used. The white sugar used can be from either beet or cane as odor and color differences will be covered by the molasses.

Brown sugar can be made at home by mixing white granulated sugar with molasses, using one tablespoon of molasses for every cup of white sugar (one-sixteenth or 6.25% of the total volume). Thorough blending will yield dark brown sugar; for light brown sugar, between one and two teaspoons of molasses per cup should be used instead. It is, however, simpler to substitute molasses for an equal portion of white sugar while cooking, without mixing them separately.

When a recipe calls for “brown sugar” it is usually referring to light brown sugar; dark brown sugar should be used only when specified.  This is relevant primarily when baking recipes sensitive to moisture and density (such as cakes), because of the difference in moisture content between the two types. In other applications, substituting dark brown sugar over light brown will yield a deeper flavor with more caramel, much like adding molasses would do.

Nutritional value

Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by weight than white sugar due to the presence of water. One hundred grams of brown sugar contains 373 calories, as opposed to 396 calories in white sugar.  However, brown sugar packs more densely than white sugar due to the smaller crystal size and may have more calories when measured by volume. One tablespoon of brown sugar has 48 calories against 45 calories for white sugar.

Brown sugar is reputed to have some value as a home remedy for menstrual cramps, though this is likely untrue.

John Yudkin, in his studies (cited in “Pure, White and Deadly” – UK title) that rats fed brown sugar, as opposed to white sugar, suffered all the same ills from such consumption as did the control group fed white sugar, while their offspring did not exhibit the same abnormalities related to the offspring of the rats fed on white sugar. This led to the conclusion that there are some trace nutritional aspects he was unable to detect in brown sugar that made it less harmful than white sugar, though the impact could only be detected in their offspring. Nutritionally, apart from pure carbohydrate, he was not able to detect any nutritional component to white or brown sugar, and such pure carbohydrate is on the list to avoid (therefore the term nutritional is suspect in this case) in the World Health Organization and FAO study on obesity and chronic preventable diseases. Note this study does state that carbohydrates in their intrinsic or unrefined form are nutritionally highly beneficial and should make up 55-75% of our diet, but they are fundamentally different from extrinsic carbohydrates such as both white and brown sugar.

Natural brown sugar is a name for raw sugar which is a brown sugar produced from the first crystallisation of the sugar cane. As such “natural brown sugar” is free of additional dyes and chemicals. There is more molasses in brown sugar, giving it a higher mineral content. Some natural brown sugars have particular names and characteristics, and are sold as Turbinado sugar, Muscovado, or Demerara sugar.

Turbinado sugar is made by crushing freshly cut sugar cane to obtain a juice, which is heated and evaporated to a thick syrup, which is then crystallized. The crystals are then spun in a centrifuge (thus “turbina-“) to remove the excess juice, resulting in the characteristic large, light brown, crystals.

Muscovado (also moscovado) is an unrefined, dark brown sugar that is produced without centrifugation and has much smaller crystals than turbinado sugar. The sugar cane extract is heated to thicken it and then pan-evaporated in the sun and pounded to yield an unprocessed, damp sugar that retains all of the natural minerals.

Demerara (also spelled “demerera”) sugar’s name comes from the Demerera River area of Guyana, where sugar cane was grown. Demerara is another unrefined, centrifuged, large-crystalled, light brown, cane sugar; it is slightly sticky and sometimes molded into sugar cubes. Some Demerara is still produced in South America, but most is now produced in Mauritius, an island off Africa.

That’s good enough for today, here is the revised list of dry goods.
1. baking soda –
2. baking powder
3. Cornstarch
4. yeast
5. flour
6. corn flour
7. corn meal
8. Salt
9. pepper -white and black
10. Sugar
11. confectioner’s sugar
12. brown sugar
13 light corn syrup
14. vanilla extract
15. ground cinnamon
16 whole nutmeg
17. ground cloves
18. powdered ginger
19. dried basil
20. dried oregano
21. chili powder
22. dry mustard
23. paprika
24. thyme
25. tarragon
26. dried dill
27. bay leaves
28. poultry seasoning
29. beef, chicken and vegetable bouillon
30. cream of tartar
31. unseasoned bread crumbs
32. unsweetened cocoa powder
33. unsweetened baking chocolate
34. chocolate chips